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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-June 2020
Volume 4 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-74

Online since Tuesday, July 28, 2020

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EDITORIAL  

Photodentistry: New concept Highly accessed article p. 1
Nirma Yadav
DOI:10.4103/sidj.sidj_1_19  
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GUEST EDITORIAL Top

Coronavirus- (COVID-19) - Formal assessment and overview Highly accessed article p. 2
Anand Kumar, Nirma Yadav
DOI:10.4103/sidj.sidj_10_20  
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Institutional approach for the management of patients in orthodontic office during COVID-19 pandemic Highly accessed article p. 4
Lakshman Chowdary Basam, Revathi Peddu, Sravanthi Tamineedi, Ram Chowdary Basam
DOI:10.4103/sidj.sidj_21_20  
COVID-19, the current pandemic has created a fearful scenario for health-care professionals. Being the frontline warriors, we need to have sound knowledge about the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and protect ourselves during this pandemic. According to the published literature, ins pite of following possible precautionary measures against transmission of disease, there is an increased number of infected health-care workers with COVID-19. The purpose of this review is to provide the information for the postgraduates, faculties, orthodontic practitioners, and to some extent, guidance on possible transmission routes, patient assessment, laboratory investigations, various radiographic imaging techniques, proper disinfectant protocol in handling the patients, orthodontic emergency management, and elective orthodontic treatment.
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Managing airborne isolation and precautions in orthodontic practice during the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019: An orthodontist perspective p. 11
Ishan Grover, Aanchal Agrawal, Harshpreet Kaur, Rajat Soni, Lakshay Mihani, Mihir Grover
DOI:10.4103/sidj.sidj_22_20  
The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its associated coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has spread to almost every country of the world with the number of cases increasing exponentially almost everywhere. Recently, the number of cases in India are also on a rise, expecting to reach its peak very soon. The deadly virus has its impact on almost every sector and it has serious implications on dentistry. Dentists and particularly orthodontists treat a number of cases in a day without being able to maintain the appropriate distance between the individuals as advised by the WHO, which brings them to the top of high-risk group. This review is an attempt to compile material from the available literature to help reduce the risks involved the performing orthodontic procedures, prevent the transmit of this contagious disease at the orthodontic office and also suggests certain home remedies which the patient can use to tackle short-term orthodontic emergencies.
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Black gingival triangle in orthodontics: Its etiology, management and contemporary literature review p. 17
Sameera Athar, Suhani Jayadev
DOI:10.4103/sidj.sidj_17_20  
The interdental papilla is extremely important for an esthetic smile. Black triangles, also known as gingival embrasures, are defined as the embrasures cervical to the interproximal contact that is not filled by the gingival tissue architecture of periodontal protection. These spaces are the foremost negatively ranked gingival factor by layman. Management of black triangles require high-quality diagnosis, and a multidisciplinary approach must be considered mandatory to attain a successful clinical outcome. Much of which is applicable is instinctive from severely complicated periodontal regeneration and implant therapy. This review will discuss the definition, etiology, classification, and various deliberations required in handling the case of a black triangle. The methods used here for selecting the topic were repeated exposure to the cases of a black triangle by the author's clinical practice. The material was selected by extracting out the content by studying the journals in all the fields of dentistry and formalizing all the obtained data together into one complete article.
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Fast track tooth movement: An amalgamation of periodontics and orthodontics p. 23
Aanchal Agrawal, Gaurav Gaur, Lokendra Singh Dagur, Upendra Singh Bhadauria, Karan Seth, Siddharaj Parmar
DOI:10.4103/sidj.sidj_2_20  
The major concern in orthodontics is prolonged duration of time of treatment, which prompts the patients to either avoid orthodontic treatment or to seek other alternatives with compromised results. The long duration of orthodontic treatment has some other disadvantages also, such as high risk of caries, gingival recession, and root resorption. Hence, to overcome the long treatment time challenge the demand to find the most efficient means to accelerate the movement of tooth with minimal disadvantages has increased. Hence, this article is aimed to review the effective approaches in the movement of tooth and present the updated techniques in tooth movement. Numerous methods have been introduced by orthodontics to accelerate tooth movement are corticision, corticotomy, micro-osteoperforations/peizo puncture, and piezocision. One of the best surgical approaches is piezocision (corticotomy) technique minimally invasive and flapless procedure because it can give excellent aesthetic outcome including good periodontal tissue response. Prostaglandins, Vitamin D, and cytokines have also shown promising results. Considering the advantages and disadvantages of each method, furthermore, investigations are required to determine the best method to accelerate tooth movement.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Efficacy of herbal mucoadhesive gel with extracts of Coriandrum sativum and curcumin as local drug delivery in the treatment of chronic periodontitis - A clinico-microbiological trial p. 30
Sachin G. Fulbel, Nikesh N. Moolya, Nilima S. Rajhans, Monali B. Pimple, Neha V. Kumthekar, Gaurav S. Lodha, Vivek R. Devani
DOI:10.4103/sidj.sidj_15_20  
Context: Herbal products are the recent advancement in the field of alternative medicines for the management of chronic periodontitis. They can be used as local drug delivery (LDD) agents over conventional antibiotics because of their extensive natural activity, advanced safety margin, and inferior costs. The present study evaluates the efficacy of one such indigenously prepared herbal gel containing extracts of Coriandrum sativum and curcumin in chronic periodontitis patients. Subjects and Methods: A total of 18 patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis were included in this randomized clinical trial. The selected 72 pockets were equally divided into experimental and control groups. Full mouth scaling and root planing (SRP) was done. The experimental site received indigenously prepared herbal LDD gel containing combined extracts of C. sativum and curcumin, and the other side received a placebo gel. The periodontal parameters assessed were plaque index, papillary bleeding index, periodontal pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months. Microbiological parameters for anaerobic analysis were assessed by colony-forming units at baseline and 3 months. Results: SPSS software analyzed all the data by repeated measure analysis of variance, paired t-test, and sample t-test with the difference of P < 0.05. Both clinical parameters and microbiological parameters showed a statistical reduction in the experimental group at 1 month and 3 months of evaluation. Significant better improvement was observed in the experimental group from 1 month to 3 months after the assessment in PPD and CAL. Conclusion: Locally delivered combined extracts of C. sativum and curcumin gel was more effective in reducing periodontal clinical parameter when used as an adjunct to SRP in the treatment of chronic periodontitis.
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Comparison of various morphological types of cementoenamel junction in ground section of permanent tooth p. 37
Kundendu Arya Bishen, Himanshu Singh, Sushruth Nayak, Prachi Nayak, Urvashi Tomar, Navneet Agrawal
DOI:10.4103/sidj.sidj_5_20  
Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the most common patterns of cementoenamel junction (CEJ) in permanent tooth and most common pattern of CEJ in males and females in permanent tooth. Materials and Methods: A total number of 120 permanent teeth were selected. The ground sections of these teeth were prepared in longitudinal plane. The cementoenamel junction of prepared ground sections was then analyzed and studied. Results: The edge-to-edge pattern of cementoenamel junction was the most common pattern observed, was followed by gap junction, cementum over enamel, and enamel over cementum. In males and females, the most common pattern of CEJ seen was same (edge-to-edge pattern), followed by gap, cementum over enamel, and enamel over cementum. Conclusion: In the present study, out of four patterns of cementoenamel junction, edge-to-edge pattern was the most commonly seen, followed by gap junction, cementum over enamel pattern, and enamel over cementum pattern.
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Comparative evaluation of incidence of separation of three different endodontic reciprocating files (manufactured from Ni-Ti) using scanning electron microscope: An in vitro study p. 41
Purva Jain, Sanjeev Tyagi, Muktishree Mahendra, Vartul Dwivedi, Parthvi Singh, Sana Khan, Rinkal Luhana, Apoorva Gupta
DOI:10.4103/sidj.sidj_24_20  
Background and Objectives: The most significant objective of this in vitro study was to analyze the incidence of separation of three different endodontic Ni-Ti manufactured files using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) used in root canal shaping. Materials and Methods: Freshly extracted teeth (maxillary 1st molars and mandibular 1st molars) were obtained from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, People's Dental Academy, Bhopal, India, and selected for root canal shaping with Ni-Ti manufactured three types of endodontic file. Ninety canals determined for root canal shaping with three different endodontic files were divided into three equal groups (WaveOne, Reciproc instruments, and WaveOne Gold during biomechanical preparation) to know the number of canals prepared before separation (i.e., lifespan). The data were recorded using a SEM and analyzed using analysis of variance, followed by Tukey's post hoc test. Results: The mean score between the three files used was for the WaveOne file system was 5.40 ± 0.89, for Reciproc file system was 5.90 ± 1.19, and for WaveOne Gold file was 9.33 ± 1.58. Statistically, it shows a significant difference in the mean number of canals prepared before separation among three file systems (F = 87.46, P < 0.001). Further, the mean number of canals prepared before the separation of WaveOne Gold file was found to be significantly (P < 0.001) different and higher as compared to both WaveOne and Reciproc files. Conclusion: According to the outcome of this in vitro study, the longest existence span was found in WaveOne Gold file system, accompanied by Reciproc file, and WaveOne file was found with the shortest existence span.
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Knowledge and attitude of private oral health-care practitioners about antimicrobial drugs prescription in the management of periodontal diseases: A cross-sectional observational survey p. 48
Ashish Bali, Amarpreet Singh, Prashant Pathania, Pankaj Chauhan, Shubh Karmanjit Singh Bawa
DOI:10.4103/sidj.sidj_18_20  
Background and Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of antimicrobial drugs prescribing by oral private health-care practitioners in the management of periodontal diseases across Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, India. Design: This was a descriptive cross-sectional percentage-based survey. Materials and Methods: A descriptive observational cross-sectional Study was conducted with the pretested and structured questionnaires which were sent physically to private oral health-care practitioners of Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh, India. The study was carried out for 2 months. A self-orchestrated questionnaire comprising 10 questions was sent by dental students to private practitioners of Mandi to assess their awareness along with a point of view concerning antimicrobial drugs prescribing for periodontal diseases. Facts entered in an Excel file were examined using SPSS version 22. Illustrative stats were carried out. Results: The survey was responded by 100 private practitioners providing oral health care who accomplish the questionnaire. Most of the private practitioners were in the age group of 20 and 60 years, and 63% were male and 37% were female. There was a statistically significant difference between knowledge on prescribing antimicrobial drugs by private oral health-care providers in Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, India. Amoxicillin Alone, amoxicillin with clavulanic acid and metronidazole was the most prescribing drug followed by clindamycin by private oral healthcare Practitioners in the management of periodontal diseases. Conclusion: Most of the private oral health-care providers practicing in Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, routinely prescribed prophylactic antimicrobial drugs, and the observational survey outcome shows that although the private practitioners do know about the antimicrobial drugs, they should be very careful while prescribing antimicrobial drugs in the management of periodontal diseases. Because of increasing microbial resistance, an immediate remedy is the need of the hour to tackle the devastating consequences of antimicrobial drugs resistance.
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Evaluation of morphological characteristic and varieties of tongue prints for personal identification in Kanpur communities: An impression-based analysis p. 54
Kriti Garg, Rohan Sachdev, Samiksha Shwetam, Shubhra Saxena, Vishal Mehrotra, Akash Srivastava
DOI:10.4103/sidj.sidj_19_20  
Context: The human tongue, a unique organ with complex architecture, exhibits significant morphological variations in the human body consistent with its complex role. Its morphological characteristic features and varieties can go about as proof of life and can be used for personal identification. The morphology and surface highlights of the tongue are qualities of each person, and these characteristics can be utilized as legal distinguishing proof of each person. Aims: This study is aimed to analyze varieties in morphological qualities of the tongue and to find out gender differences. Settings and Design: This study was conducted on 206 (Group I consist of 105 females and Group II consist of 101 male) participants with an age range of 21–30 years for 4 months who had visited the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology. Subjects and Methods: The tongue was exposed to visual assessment following which alginate impression of the dorsal surface of the tongue was taken to make tongue cast and to assess distinct morphological features of the tongue and its variations in males and females. Statistical Analysis Used: The discrete (categorical) data were summarized in number (n) and percentage (%) and compared using the Chi-square (χ2) test. Results: A total of 206 participants in both groups, the U-shaped tongue, was the most common findings in males, as well as in females followed by a V-shaped tongue with a sharp tip that was observed more in females compared to males. Scalloped borders and multiple fissures were more common in males as compared to females. Conclusions: Variations of tongue shape and surface properties can be used as personal human identification in forensic odontology, and tongue prints can also be used as a standard method for the collection of data. The collected data of tongue prints may be used as a professional recognition database to ease human identification and to avoid future scams.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Fibropromotion: Fibrin-assisted soft-tissue promotion technique for root coverage using advanced platelet-rich fibrin p. 60
Sharanya Bose, Subhapriya Mandal, B. S. Ravi Prakash, Abhijit Chakraborty, Vivek Raghavji Devani
DOI:10.4103/sidj.sidj_3_20  
The periodontal plastic procedure aims to correct the soft-tissue deformities of the inadequate keratinized tissue or loss of attachment. The clinicians and researchers have tried various materials and techniques to maintain soft-tissue barrier. The literature supports the use of subepithelial connective tissue with satisfactory results. However, problems such as increased morbidity, safety concern, harvest quality, and insufficient procurement have impelled for better material. The third-generation autologous blood derivative: advanced platelet-rich fibrin (A-PRF) is an excellent alternative and fibropromotive material. The current case report discusses easy and reproducible fibrin-assisted soft-tissue promotion technique using A-PRF for root coverage of multiple defect.
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Use of training denture base and palateless dentures: Two different strategies in the management of severe gag reflex in edentulous patients p. 63
Medha Vivek Bhuskute
DOI:10.4103/sidj.sidj_9_20  
Gagging is a common problem encountered in clinical prosthodontic practice. In many cases gagging is of psychologic nature and should be treated before denture procedures are completed, so that the patient will be comfortable with well-constructed prostheses. Effective management of gag reflex includes a wide array of techniques ranging from use of common salt on the tip of tongue, acupressure, distraction, relaxation, pharmacotherapy and desensitization. This case report discusses how a holistic approach for gagging prevention and use of training denture base can facilitate denture wearing for a known potential gagger and also highlights how palateless denture helped overcome gagging in a patient with thick ropy saliva in another case.
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Periodontal prosthesis: An interdisciplinary approach p. 67
Yamini Rajachandrasekaran, Geeth Deepika Kottai Gandhi
DOI:10.4103/sidj.sidj_12_20  
Planning a course of treatment for periodontally compromised patients is a multidisciplinary approach. The goal of treatment should aim at achieving the physiologic form, esthetics, and function of all teeth and also to stabilize the tooth mobility by splinting if the teeth are to be preserved. Hence, replacing a missing tooth in a periodontally compromised patient involves the joint collaboration of periodontist, prosthodontist, and endodontist, and, at times, orthodontists are involved to achieve the treatment goal. This case presents management of missing tooth in periodontally compromised patients (periodontal prosthetic ptients) using indirect fiber-reinforced prosthesis which acts as periodontal prosthesis.
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SHORT DISCUSSION Top

Hallermann–Streiff syndrome: A concealing and expatiative overview p. 71
Richa Wadhawan, Himani Lau, Mayank Lau, Manish Sharma, Deepshikha Gogoi, Gopal Krishna, Dharti Narendra Gajjar
DOI:10.4103/sidj.sidj_11_20  
The Hallermann–Streiff syndrome is a congenital disorder classified by distinctive craniofacial malformations and significant orodental abnormalities. In spite of rarity, it is vital to know for a dentist because of involvement of multiple congenital abnormalities chiefly affecting the head and the face. Etiology is unknown in most of the cases but may occur as a result of mutations or changes to the genetic material. Early preventive care protocols, detailed oral hygiene instructions, and regular dental visits are essential for patients with this syndrome.
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