Indian Journal of Ophthalmology

GUEST EDITORIAL
Year
: 2020  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 2--3

Coronavirus- (COVID-19) - Formal assessment and overview


Anand Kumar1, Nirma Yadav2,  
1 Department of Dental Surgery, MLN Medical College, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Periodontics, Ahmedabad Dental College and Hospital, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India

Correspondence Address:
Anand Kumar
Department of Dental Surgery, MLN Medical College, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh
India




How to cite this article:
Kumar A, Yadav N. Coronavirus- (COVID-19) - Formal assessment and overview.Saint Int Dent J 2020;4:2-3


How to cite this URL:
Kumar A, Yadav N. Coronavirus- (COVID-19) - Formal assessment and overview. Saint Int Dent J [serial online] 2020 [cited 2021 Oct 21 ];4:2-3
Available from: https://www.sidj.org/text.asp?2020/4/1/2/291021


Full Text

Coronavirus (CoV) (2019) belongs from family betacoronavirus (Subfamily-Orthocoronavirinae) well known as COVID-19 and nCOVID19 (n Stands for NOVEL means new), so the name given nCOVID-19 (novel coronavirus 19) is an epidemic infectious disease first reported in Wuhan (Central China Hubei Province) probably from Wet Market China. It has now spread in 199 countries and territories. The most affected countries by this epidemic infectious disease are China, Italy, America, Spain, Iran, France, Germany, South Korea, India, etc., Structure of nCOVs-19 is crown-like appearance, composed of several proteins spike, nucleocapsid envelope (Spike Glycoprotein) encasing positive-sense single-stranded RNA (Genome) and VIRIONS (Viruses). It is the largest known RNA virus with + ssRNA-30 kb in length (5' Cap Structure and 3' Tail Structure). The Diameter of Coronavirus is 15–200 nm, and nCOVs-19 is approximately 60–140 nm. The spike protein is located on the surface of the virus and forms a rod-like structure. Coronavirus replicate locally in cells of ciliated epithelium, causing cell damage and inflammation. Diagnostic antigen. Structure[1] of Corona-Virus (4 Proteins) Includes–

Envelope proteinSpike proteinMembrane proteinNucleocapsid protein/RNAHemagglutinin esterase dimer.

Coronavirus has two divisions[2]–

Group based on serologyGroup based on phylogenetic clustering.

Types[3]–

Alpha CoVBeta CoV-Divides in 5 Genere or lineageDelta CoVGamma CoV.

Source

BatsHumansCivets (intermediate source)Cattle and catsBamboo rats and badgers.

Probably, it is known that Bats and Rodents are Gene Source of alpha and beta coronavirus.

Human CoV (HCoV) from family alpha and beta CoVs from sub family CoronaVirinae (3) are[3],[4]

Alpha CoVs

HCoV-229EHCoV-NL 63.

Beta CoVs

HCoV-OC 43HCoV-KHU1.

Others

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV (2003)SARS-CoV 2 (2019)/nCoV-19/COVID-29Middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV (B and C Lineage).

SARS-CoVs2 name was given by the International Committee of Taxonomy of Virus, and NCoV-19 belongs to Beta Group A lineage was given by the World Health Organization.

The transmission of Corona Virus occurs by Replication-Transcription Complex and known route of communication is-

Animal to humanHuman to humanSymptomatic people (most frequent source)Transmit through coughing or sneezing (respiratory droplets)Aerosol transmission is also possible in closed spaces.

Binds and entered through endocytosis and membrane fusion, then release of nCoV genome. Transmit viral RNA in the form of Polyprotein 1a/1ab (PP1a/PP1b) in the host. Two processes occur, i.e., Genomic RNA replication and sgRNA transcription. S, E and M proteins combine with nucleocapsid and hence CoV enters in golgi vesicles. Assemble of mature virion and exocytosis.

Diagnosis

Viral culture gold standardReverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactionRespiratory material (nasopharyngeal and oro-pharyngeal swab)Serum for serological testingPneumococcal antigen detection.

Associated disease (syndrome)

SARSMERS

Possible treatment (till date nothing has been postulated)–

Phase-I

Influenza vaccine to uninfected patientsConvalescent plasma to infected COVID-19 patientsWashing hand for 20 sSelf-isolation for 7 days (active) and 14 days (passive)Wear N-95 maskSocial distancing upto 6 feet.

Phase II

Solutions used to inactive nCoV-19 areChlorhexidine gluconate75% alcoholChlorine containing disinfectantsPeracetic acidChloroform and other lipid solvents.

Phase III (for hospitalized patients)

For severe cases maintain oxygen therapyFluid therapy and steam inhalationCorrect temperature.

References

1Available from https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/330374/WHO-2019-nCoV-laboratory-2020.1-eng.pdf. [Last accessed on 2020 Mar 28].
2Li F. Structure, function, and evolution of coronavirus spike proteins. Annu Rev Virol 2016;3:237-61.
3Corman VM, Ithete NL, Richards LR, Schoeman MC, Preiser W, Drosten C, et al. Rooting the phylogenetic tree of middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus by characterization of a conspecific virus from an African bat. J Virol 2014;88:11297-303.
4Cascella M, Rajnik M, Cuomo A, Dulebohn SC, Di Napoli R. StatPearls [Internet]. Features, Evaluation and Treatment Coronavirus (COVID-19). Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; Mar 20, 2020.